**Here’s an archive of Mathnificent Words that connect you to where math shows up IRL and convey how mathematical concepts can be a power tool in the workplace, and at home, and in all types of social situations.**

## They’re presented here in the chronological order that they’ve appeared in the weekly KLM* email.

If you’d like to receive these directly to your InBox, you can subscribe at the bottom of this page.

### March 21, 2023: **PARITY**

**The quest for attaining parity can feel likeyou’re on the search party for a chameleon.**

The common definition of parity is *the state or condition of being equal in terms of numbers and proportions*. For example, a gender parity would be the balanced (in terms of numbers/proportions/ratio) representation of all gender identities within a group or organization – most ideally in leadership. Though some folks may use the word to also mean equality of power or influence, that’s technically not correct. Parity, no matter what context it’s used in, is a descriptive word only; it’s not in relation to value or policy.

But now, here’s the math-world definition(s) of parity that is oh-so-close to meaning the same thing yet… nope… it’s different enough that **I’d like us to take this math-world definition(s) into consideration** when we’re working on something IRL where reaching parity is the goal to be achieved.

**This definitive difference is a bit of an eye-opener, truth be told**. The overall takeaway with either of the math definitions clearly states that parity is a binary descriptor, an either/or. Since I don’t ascribe to the archaic definition of gender being binary, then the phrase gender parity is a bit of a head scratch, no?

So goes what I’m asking you to consider: In addition to a balance in terms of proportions or ratio, **howz about a balance of the attributes of negative / positive & an equivalence of left / right?** Y’all get to decide the most fitting way to define the words negative, positive, left, and right, based on the conditions and structure you are doing your parity work within.

I’ll admit, sometimes it’s like being a part of a dance, kind of like the hokey-pokey, with a barker calling out do this, then that, now this — **and that’s what it’s all about**.

I still go with the overall goal being to bring everyone together so that there’s a representative blend into one cohesive unit. Though your quest for parity may create a flicker of standing-out at first, as the mixing continues the hope is that each new addition will blend in with its surroundings and attain a balance of that negative / positive, left / right.

^{sidenote: I am now drawn to writing any essay named…what else… The Parity TrapThanks everyone, please tip your bartenders on your way out.}

### March 7, 2023: **SUBSTITUTION**

**I’m wondering if it’s time to move around the support playersin order to simplify the flow of the entire game.**

Allrighty. We’re ten weeks into the new year, how’s 2023 going for ya?

Though I’m pretty self-reliant, **I absolutely need the support of my peers **to reach my goals for expanding the audience of Kate Loves Math*. We gotta keep on lifting each other up, right?

Now, I’m a fool for baseball and a couple of weeks ago Major League Baseball spring training began. Spring Training is like a dress rehearsal; everyone’s in uniform and they’re going through the entire 9 innings and they are playing to win, but each team is also moving players around and testing them in different positions and changing up batting orders with a lot more frequency than they do during the regular season. And there seems to be a pitcher substitution almost every inning.

Which got me thinking about the past 9 weeks (oooh, like 9 innings ⚾️) and whether **it might be a good idea to just, you know, evaluate my own (support) team and – if needed – apply the mathematical process of solving by substitution**.

`Here's a mathematical example of `*solving by substitution*:
You have two equations to solve where 'x' and 'y' are each representing a number.
x = 2y - 4 and 2x = 3y - 5
Since the value of x and y are the same for both equations, if you can figure out what number x represents in one equation then you can substitute that same number for x in the other equation. This should help in figuring out the corresponding y value and solving both equations.

Quite simply, I’m reassessing what I knew about my peers in the beginning of the year based on recent conversations. There’s definitely some people (let’s call them ‘x’) who have additional knowledge and skills that I didn’t know – 9 weeks ago – that they possessed. So, I’m wondering if I can substitute the specific skills someone has to support me in reaching one goal for another goal that I hadn’t even considered they’d be able to support me with.

And that all made me wonder if you might want to try this solve by substitution process yourself. Sometimes while working a plan there is new information about a key element that’s casually served up, yours for the taking – and for the re-positioning. Lemme know if you run through some scenarios of your own and if this analytic process helps you – and your team – better accomplish what you’re going for.

_{For those who actually read those equations above >>>}

### February 21, 2023: **PERMUTATION**

**It isn’t so much about taking a linear approach,it’s about considering a thoughtful approach.**

When you need to do – or lead (or be a part of) – something that has multiple steps from start to an ideal-looking finish, to just get the motor-running on the process you may do the easiest thing first and save the “hardest” thing for later down the line. Or, I’ve known some people to tackle that hardest thing first so the rest of the process is a relatively easy downhill slide.

Though the word permutation is commonly defined as “one of several possible variations that something can be ordered or arranged” – please allow me to introduce the mathematical definition of the word, which actually dictates that there is a specified order to a specified number of items & actions that must be followed in order to get to the finish line that is desired.

You see, in ye ol math world, when the order of the steps in your process don’t matter, then that’s simply known as a combination. Thankfully, there are probably more combinations in our lives than permutations. 🤞🏼

**The IRL mathematical permutations I am thinking about are the ones that revolve around human-centered actions. **I feel like I’m seeing a lot of them in the news lately, like swaths of layoffs at large companies or the mass eradication of homeless encampments.

Employing the concept of applying a mathematical permutation to the order of the steps in your process may absolutely – in fact, it’s quite likely – add additional time to the process. Sure, those layoffs may legit need to happen and need to happen ASAP and you want to time it ‘right’ with the next payroll cycle, but don’t do layoffs on a Friday, that’s f’d up for everyone involved and assuming a weekend of time away from the office will then make for a calmer “fresh start” on Monday…nah, that just ignites more questions.

Or, making executive decisions to satisfy the loudest $$$-controlling complaints in your ear yet not taking the time – not insisting on taking the time – to talk with the homeless population that’s directly affected by the actions of their only safe shelter being destroyed, that, too, is f’d up.

**Thoughtfulness and respect for our fellow humans is the social currency that doesn’t ebb along with the rate of inflation.** This is what is meant by human-centered design.

**So here’s what I ask of you:** the next time you find yourself about to start something that will directly affect the lives of other humans, I hope that instead of just evaluating the impact on your life, you’ll decide to evaluate thoughtfully the impact you’ll make on others as well. If your process needs to now add or reorder some steps, so be it. Then forevermore you may now have, and insist it will always be, a permutation of that process.

### February 7, 2023: **ARGUMENT**

**Here’s why the phrase let’s agree to disagree is the most asinine and unproductive thing to say.**

In non-math saturated lives, the word argument is usually seen to have negative connotations. If you tell someone you had an argument with someone else, the response will be something like, “Oh, that’s a shame. Are you all right?” or “Who won?”

**In the world of mathematics, arguments have a necessary presence **in just about every function (equation, problem, challenge) because they are the very definition of the value of the function (equation, problem, challenge) at-hand in order for everyone to be able to move towards a successful joint outcome.

If each mathematician assigned their own personal value definition to an argument, it’s kinda obvious that – when working with others on that function (equation, problem, challenge) – the likelihood that the solution would be a success is somewhere around nil (aka zero).

**So, why do we think we’ll find true success on a team **if there’s a couple folks doing that whole let’s agree to disagree (so we can all just move on) passive-aggressive dance?

Additionally, if you read last week’s essay about variables, then you’ll understand that since an argument is also a variable, that means there’s an acknowledgement & awareness that’s required to be considered about those conditions where that argument is existing within, in order to accurately determine its value.

**Here’s what we can learn from the mathematical definition of an argument:**

- Two or more people are willingly participating in this exchange of information. Less than that and you’re witnessing a rant, not an argument.
- The topic of the argument remains focused on and applicable to the conditions of the function (equation, problem, challenge).
- The argument is complete when all participants actively agree on the value that’s been defined for the function (equation, problem, challenge). Ergo, agree to disagree does not qualify in this context.
- Respectful communication abound. Duh.

I think arguments have always been meant to be a positive way to move through a disagreement. Because when everyone gets to the other side of that argument, don’t you physically feel lighter?

### January 24, 2023: **MARTINGALE**

**What a lovely sounding word for something that has everything to do with risk.**

The original usage of the word was with gambling to describe a betting system where when a bet was lost, one would double-down on their next bet, continuing that method until they won. The assumption was that probability dictated that, eventually, they’d have to win at some point. Of course, that was fruitful if and only if all other things were equal – and the gambler had infinite $$$ to bet with. There’s also a variation that, when a win does happen, the next bet is half of the prior, and the betting continues till the gambler breaks even.

The Martingale System was adopted (and adapted) by early 20th century mathematicians who worked in Probability Theory; it’s their definition that I’m referencing today. It also clearly calls out a randomness factor from start to finish.

Yesterday I realized that I am already assessing my own 2023 goal progress (yeah, just a few weeks into the new year 🤪) and since I’m such a fiend about planning out each and every step in a plan and looking for patterns to success, the unexpected things – good or bad – rarely happen. This stirred up the memory of what someone said to lil ol’ risk-adverse me a handful of years ago.

**“If you keep trying to study the risk out of risk, you’re going to miss an opportunity.”**

Dang it.

So I offer to each of you the consideration to, occasionally, put on your Martingale Glasses™️ – especially when you might be about to immerse yourself into a time-suck of investigating the path to a guaranteed outcome. Take a step (or two or three) in an unknown direction that has a chance to reward you with something you hadn’t known of and that you’d deem to be as equally good – or maybe even greater – than the direction you’re most familiar with.

**I know you’re smart **so always check your gut first, know your personal risk boundaries, and be aware of *all *who may be affected by *any *decisions you’d make. But, hey, sometimes the law of probability is bound to go in your favor, right?!?

### January 10, 2023 **NEIGHBORHOOD**

**One of the most important things in mathematics are relationships.**

The other day I was thinking about manifolds because, c’mon, look at this wacky shape, isn’t it cool? And while I was reading about them, I was reminded that just like most things in the study of topology (which lives within the massive discipline of geometry), defining what the neighborhood is within a manifold is integral to the very definition of the manifold itself.

Now, I realize what I’m about to posit sounds like a Carrie Bradshaw question, but: **Is defining what my neighborhood is an integral part of defining who I am?**

For my computer science friends and any other readers who have dabbled in the world of information technology, I’d bet you’re quite familiar with neighborhoods in regards to data networks. These tech networks also have trees (that have branches!) and paths (of information going from Point A to Point B and on and on to other Points). It’s all further evidence that **people have been humanizing math forever-eva**. All of this was born from stuff like graph theory, and combinatorics, in addition to the aforementioned topology and geometry.

So, in my process of defining my neighborhood using the mathematical definition, I label myself as the ‘given point’. Then I need to specify the value of the distance from myself to all those points in my set (AKA in my neighborhood). Do I take on a value that is large, as in: Is my neighborhood global? Or do I define the measurement of my neighborhood to actually be local, so maybe it’s synonymous with the borders of my state, or my town, or the company I work for.

Looking at the word value and considering how important that word is to me IRL, I realize that since we’re now talking about human relationships, **I need to recognize one of the other meanings of the word value: worth**. Not the worth of others in the neighborhood nor the worth of myself, but the worth of the relationship itself; the worth of generating it and maintaining it, for everyone that is a part of it.

And that’s what convinced me that defining my neighborhood does indeed contribute to defining who I am; it’s kind of the mathy version of Show me who your friends are and I’ll tell you who you are, except instead of focusing on the reflective part of that saying, the focus is on – as with any good mathematical concept – the relation of all the elements that are present, and what they can produce together, being the parts of a whole (neighborhood).

In 2023 and beyond, **my neighborhood includes all y’all.** The value (measurement) I specified is my potential reach to readers like you as well as the value (worth) of the relationship we have with each other.

How do you define your neighborhood, especially as you start putting action to your 2023 plans?

### December 20, 2022: **PROOF**

**“Math is a search for objective truths, while proofs are the search for subjective agreement.”**

That quote is from mathematician Jay Cummings from his long-form mathematics textbook: PROOF. I think it’s a succinct observation of how math is – just like all things are, for all of us, everywhere in all our lives – always looking for and sharing affirmations to statements that we can then, collectively, move forward with as Truth (with a capital ‘T’).

I do love that the word proof is one of those words that has multiple variations on its meaning, depending on what it’s being associated with. Are we using it in mathematics? Referencing alcohol? Is it a typeset for approval? Or, in adjective form, is it to resist or repel (waterproof)? Or how about as a verb when you’re baking and using yeast?

In all the possible definitions of the word, there’s a consistent theme, and that is that there’s a definitive and absolute certainty about it that can be verified by others. And that’s why – **instead of making a resolution or a goals list for 2023 – howz about making a proof? A Personal Proof.**

Here’s the most basic of the basics of a proper Direct Proof:

**IT HAS:**

*logical and crystal clear*phrasing.*formality*in its language.*brevity*in its length (keep it under 10 sentences).*understandable*everyday language.- familiar mathematical phrasing, like, “If {abc}…then {xyz}, as well as phrases like “If and only if.”
*It is straight forward.*

**IT DOES NOT HAVE:**

- any run-on descriptive sentences.
- trivial information. Every word in every sentence has a reason to be there.
- any statements that could be open to personal interpretation by the reader

**NOTE: If you are writing your Personal Proof for ‘future you’, write down what you’d consider to be the goal date for it to be True since a proof is always written in the present tense.**

You start with a theorem — your proposition of what is absolutely true.

For example, you might say:*∀ I can lift 100lbs of machine weights above my head at any U.S. compliant health & fitness facility.*

You follow with a statement(s) (aka a lemma) that, in consecutive statements, supports that theorem:*If I go to my neighborhood gym, then I can lift 100lbs on the hammer strength machine.My neighborhood gym is a U.S. compliant health & fitness facility.∴ I can lift 100lbs of machine weights above my head at any U.S. compliant health & fitness facility.*

Keep in mind that your theorem does not need to be an obvious statement; go ahead, surprise other people in your life, show them how you have a thought-out logical and understandable plan-of-action that you’ll be able to say, at a pre-determined date, is the Truth.

**I like the idea of writing a Personal Proof because it is a concise statement that states a commitment you’re making to yourself. **If your yearly goal lists tend to have general nebulous statements, make a few Personal Proofs; it requires you to focus and be realistic about what is needed in order for you to embody your Truth with a capital T.

### December 6, 2022: **REFORMULATE**

**There’s a humbleness in it that shows up as a strength in character.**

The root word *form* is in many mathcentric words: formula, formal, formality, formalism, formulate and of course simply the word form in and of itself. It suggests a structure of some permanency, something that is built in a definitive way, and of course when you’re talking about math or science, there’s likely deep thought behind the action.

You mathematically reformulate something when the new version:

- Won’t look that different to those on the periphery; there’s minimal ripple effect
- Will still
*share the same properties*from its previous version - Will be more efficient in its process
- Will bring a sense of ease to all that interact with it
- Will openly reveal what wasn’t working in the prior version

What I like about this MWFYW is that **the reformulation is a change that is unequivocally for the better – where ‘better’ is about efficiency and ease.**

It can be hard for a mathematician to have to reformulate. They will kick and maybe even scream if you tell them that their only path to success is – after working on the same thing and being on the same path for days months years, something that they’ve modeled, that they’ve tested, that they’ve FORMulated, dang it, – that they need to reformulate because there is something very apparent blocking the path to success.

I can also tell you what reformulating is not — especially if you’re considering a reformulation in the workplace. **Reformulating ≠ pivot**. When businesses consider pivoting, they’re wanting to alter to some degree their core service or product in order to better meet the needs of their clientele. Pivoting is looking externally to dictate the alteration, and therefore the impact to internal is actually a reaction.

But when you reformulate, you are looking inward, first and foremost, to make your alteration. **I think when a business reformulates, they’re self-aware, they’re saying “it’s me, not you.”**

I believe reformulating doesn’t need to be dramatic, but it can be personal. Your business might finally accept that a new position needs to be created for responsibilities that you can’t manage yourself anymore; it’s a betterment in efficiency for everyone. A reformulation in your workplace can alternatively be automating something that doesn’t require a human component for smoothing out a process for ultimate success.

And for yourself – well, consider reformulating instead of starting over. Reformulate instead of pivoting. Reformulate instead of reacting to an outside causation that you interpret as meaning that you gotta scrap it all and do something else.

Honor your original formula, pay attention to the internal workings (that work) and make alterations for efficiency and ease.

### November 22, 2022: **BIFURCATION**

**The knowledge we gain from our experiences informs us more than you may realize.**

According to the folx at Merriam-Webster, the common definition of ‘bifurcation’ is: *the point or area at which something divides into two branches or parts. *It’s a handy word to illustrate when one road splits and becomes two roads, or when a tree grows a new branch from an existing branch.

Then there’s how the word ‘bifurcation’ is used in the mathematical universe. The term ‘bifurcation’ has more details than what is here in the MWFYW. There’s a whole thing called Bifurcation Theory, and there’s even three different categories of bifurcations, and I know you don’t want to shimmy down this rabbit hole right now. But I *do* want to highlight what hooks into me about bifurcation.

A bifurcation **starts because of a small change in a parameter**. A parameter for you and me are the conditions that we exist in. And, you know, small changes in our conditions happen all the time. Sometimes you work late so you end up catching a different bus. Or sometimes there’s a sudden rainstorm and your feet get soaked. Different experiences can happen due to a small change in our conditions.

Also, a bifurcation** is all about a qualitative change**. We’re not talking about a quantitative change, this isn’t a numbers or statistics sort of moment. This is a change that happens at the crossroad moments in your life that is based on the human side of things, on feelings and on memories and – good or bad – it’s based on a reaction to something that was experienced by You.

So, you’ve got a small change that actually triggers the bifurcation point to appear in the first place. And then the experience from that small change also informs which of the two paths should be chosen at that decision-making moment. I guess that’s why some mathematicians call the bifurcation point a “fork of possibilities.”

To me, this is a reminder that when I come upon a significant decision-making moment in my life, **I don’t just check my gut, but I trust my gut** because I know that it’s my experiences that got me to this fork of possibilities, and *my* experiences contain the truest of information to help me choose which path to take.

### November 8, 2022: **CYCLIC**

**As humans, some of our patterns of behavior evolve, while other patterns just repeat and repeat and repeat.**

As I’ve mentioned before, you are a brilliant person, so seeing this Mathnificent Word For Your Week (**MWFYW**) I’m sure you immediately summarized that the first three letters of the word (cyc) are at the root of a ton of other words you’re already familiar with — words like cyclone, or cycloid, or cyclical.

Though all those words have different definitions, they all draw the base of their definition from ‘cyc’, meaning “*some sort of recurrent movement*.” That movement is implied in botany’s definition of cyclic, “*arranged as parts of a flower*,” in chemistry it’s “*relating to a compound that contains a closed chain or ring of atoms*,” and in the mathematical branch of geometry it’s specific to “*having all its vertices lying on a circle*.”

I focused on the algebraic definition, where in the photo the pinwheel rotates each of its four elements – equal in power – in a recurrent movement so that the first element immediately follows the last, and the pattern repeats and repeats, never evolving in any way; it’s just sorta…there, doing it’s thing, probably bringing a lil joy to all who happen upon it. It’s fine.

**When I first came across this MWFYW, it got me to realize that, huh, I was in a cyclic way of living. And it really was more than just cyclical, it was algebraically cyclic. I had given equal importance – equal power – to each of the elements in my life, in repetition.**

The big thing (that I totally realized but had also pushed to the back of my brain so I could ignore it) was that I really didn’t feel like I was on the proverbial hamster wheel, going through the motions. Nope. **I was fulfilled — while also being unfulfilled. I was fiiiinnnnne.**

Much like Gerald in the MWFTW’s example sentence, I found where I could end those fulfilling but unfulfilling things to make room for the new motion in my life, something that would hopefully reach 💯 on the fulfillment scale. And that is precisely when Kate Loves Math* was born.

It definitely wasn’t an easy decision. I very intentionally put the brakes on, for now or maybe forever(?), physically volunteering with causes that are important to me in my community; this is the first time in 15 years that I’m not on a non-profit board. And tho I feel that my work with each of those orgs was impactful, I quite consciously **transferred the power I had been giving** to that element in my life, that part of my identity(!) and have now put it behind this mathtastic creation that also fills my heart — just in a different way. I made viable space for it and power to it.

We’re headed on into the reflective time of year. We’ve just completed the first week of November, which then means December and the end of 2022 (excuse me, what?) is almost upon us. I know you’re gonna naturally reflect on what is and isn’t important to you and you may consider pushing out the unimportant things in the coming months.

BUT, I’m truly curious to know: Do you feel fulfilled *and *unfulfilled? Are you fiiiinnnnne? Do you recognize this cyclic way of living? Are you doing something that you’ve given power to, that you would totally define as important…and realize that if you stopped its recurring motion that that would make room for something that’s been in the background in your life?

There’s no right or wrong answer, for sure, I’d just love to know — whatcha gonna do?

### October 25, 2022: **ADDITIVE**

**This is how math is everywhere, and in all that we do (all that we ALL do).**

As I’m writing this, I am listening to the live Emergency Special Council Meeting of the Portland (Oregon) City Council. If you’re not familiar with what Portland is like right now, there is a heartbreaking amount of houseless folks within the city (and as I just wrote that sentence, I heard that there are currently over 700 encampments within the city’s limits, wtAf?); this emergency meeting is purportedly focused on this issue.

As I listen to all the stats being quoted and the hum of endless politicking as each council member takes the mic, my choice for this week’s Mathnificent Word feels quite appropriate. This new(est) proposal by the city seems to invite a more collaborative (instead of dictatorial) approach for our local government & social service entities.

The words ‘distribution’ and ‘cumulative’ are key to what differentiates how this word ‘additive’ is so much more significant compared to an action that is merely an addition. **When you employ an action that is additive, there is intention from the get-go to touch all the entities currently involved plus thoughtful intention to include the entities that need to be involved, and the entire process continues onward together to build, in collaboration, towards one defined goal.** Like sprinkling an additive powder over everything, the intention is to give strength and bind all things together so that there is effective on-going communication towards the common end goal, be it making you – or in this case, an entire city – healthier.